The following materials were developed for a conference presentation. They will be expanded and refined over the next year. Eventually, they will become the basis for the e-scrapbooking website.

The following links will help you explore the contents of this page:

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"I find out more and more every day how important it is for people to share their memories." - Mister Rogers

Scraps are pieces of information, insights, emotions, thoughts, memories, and understandings. These elements can be combined into a visual, digital story.

The E in e-scrapbooking means:

  • electronic
  • educational
  • experiential
  • engaging
  • expressions

E-scrapbooks are tools for reflecting on ideas and sharing perspectives. As such, they reflect both process and product. For teachers, e-scrapbooks are a wonderful to track student learning, thinking, and understandings. Because they can easily be graded using a rubric or checklist, e-scrapbooks are a great activity to determine whether students have met standards. They can also provide concrete evidence of teacher performance and student learning.

When working with students on inquiry-based projects, there is always a question of process vs product. What products can be used to demonstrate student learning? Journals and logs have become increasingly popular. When combined with visuals such as photographs and concept maps along with video and audio, a rich collection of evidence is available to track and evaluate student performance. E-scrapbooks are a wonderful way to combine these ideas into a single multimedia artifact.

Rather than focusing on the "correct answer" or a "product," an e-scrapbooking environment encourages students to explain their thinking, make comparisons, chronicle experiences, and make predictions.

While traditional scrapbooks focus on telling about the facts students have gathered, consider ways that these new e-scrapbooks can also reflect the learning that has taken place including the transformation of ideas. How can we see the process of student thinking in the project? How can an e-scrapbook demonstrate a change in thinking, depth in understanding, and ability to see different perspectives?

There's not a "best" way to create an e-scrapbook. It doesn't take a particular type of hardware or software. The key is taking scraps of information and ideas and making sense of these.

Reflection is one of the most important aspects of the learning process. It's a metacognitive process that involves thinking about thinking. This thoughtfulness can be expressed many ways. An e-scrapbook is a great way to record these understandings and transform them into an interesting, meaningful communication.

E-scrapbooking uses technology in a practical and effective way including:

  • Address standards in authentic ways
  • Motivate learners
  • Conceptualize an idea
  • Brainstorm thoughts
  • Locate primary sources
  • Record artifacts and experiences
  • Organize and synthesize materials
  • Publish and share creations

E-scrapbooks are a great way for people to communicate their ideas, feelings, stories, and perspectives.

  • demonstrate and share understandings
  • ponder critical issues
  • reflect thinking
  • tell stories
  • document lives
  • chronicle events
  • highlight participation
  • archive artifacts, ideas, thoughts, photos
  • teach someone

Questions lead to ideas, information, experiences, learning, understandings, and communication.

Analysis involves exploration, organization, and evaluation.

Synthesis helps people see how all the scraps come together into a meaningful communication.

E-scrapbooking leads to shared understandings and habits of mind that can be applied across the curriculum.

History of Scrapbooking

Scrapbooking has been popular for hundreds of years. The earliest example of the word used in print dates to 1854. For more information, check the Scrapbooks page from the Library of Congress and Scrapbooks from Tulane.

Many famous people have kept scrapbooks including Grover Cleveland and Abraham Lincoln. In addition, many people have kept scrapbooks on others. For example, there's a great Scrapbook with original articles and clippings on the life of Frederick Douglass at the Library of Congress.

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E-scrapbooking in Learning & Teaching

There are many ways that e-scrapbooks can become educational scrapbooks.

Use as teaching tool

  • practice what you preach
  • quality examples, models, templates
  • use your personal stories to peak interest

As you create your e-scrapbook, consider both the visual aspect and the writing aspect. Some people like to create an area of additional reflection and comments. For example, you might include comments in Word or Speaker Notes in PowerPoint supplement your project. These notes might include memories, citations, additional information.

Read the study The Academic Value of Hands-on Craft Projects in Elementary Schools. This 2001 study shows that student learning improves when classroom lessons incorporate hands-on activities.

Educational and Electronic Scrapbooking
E-scrapbooks can contain a range of electronic elements. Don't think of them as just a book with pages. Scrapbooks can be three dimensional including many types of artifacts. However, they may also contain electronic elements such as digital photos and audio recordings. In some cases technology is used as part of the process for creating fancy text using interesting fonts or locating information on the Internet. Sometimes the final product is a mix of computer-generated and hand-made materials. In other cases, the final product is a photograph or scanned version of a product.

Scrapbooking has been popular for a long time. You'll be able to find lots of examples of personal scrapbooks. However it's time to expand your idea of scrapbooking. Consider ways that you can teach and learn with these scrapbooks.

Explore some online scrapbook examples:

Explore WebQuests and Lessons with scrapbook products that could be adapted to digital format:

Scrapbook Starters. Explore multimedia scrapbook starters. Consider building a Scrapbook Starter using a template. There are over 2000 multimedia scrapbook starters. A few are listed below. For more go to Filamentality and do a search for "scrapbook." Keep in mind that many have been on the web for a while, so they may suffer link rot.

Explore books with a scrapbooking theme:

  • Divine Secrets of Ya-Ya Sisterhood by Rebecca Wells. The main character has a scrapbook.
  • Keepsake Crimes by Laura Childs. Set in a scrapbook shop.

E-scrapbooks related to a range of visual, digital storytelling expressions including

  • Collage
  • Digital Archives.
  • Emblems. Symbols such as family crests and ranch brands.
  • Journals. Diaries, logs, and other written stories and accounts.
  • Libraries
  • Mosaic. Tiles, stained glass windows, doors, and walls created through placing pieces of color into designs.
  • Murals. Paintings on walls, town/city buildings, or ceilings.
  • Museums
  • Nature Journals
  • Panels
  • Photo essays
  • Photojournalism
  • Portfolios.
  • Rock Art. Petroglyph and pictographs from ancient times to the present such as Arrow Canyon.
  • Sketchbooks. Drawings, paintings, and art in a book form. American Indians used ledger books for sketchbooks. Many people keep nature sketchbooks.
  • Totems. Family or group stories and symbols.
  • Quilts, Weavings, and Tapestries. The use of thread, yarn, rope, and/or fabric to create coverings, wall hangings, and art with interesting designs.
  • Virtual Specimen Collections

There's a chance you may find a lesson or idea that you can adapt for the e-scrapbooking environment. For example, you may find a traditional lesson that would benefit from the rich learning environment of scrapbook creation.

Here are some great places to seek lessons to adapt:

You may wish to create activities and lessons from scratch. Consider ways that you and your students can explore their understandings through authentic resources and "real world" connections.

You'll start with questioning and exploration. Identify, select, annotate, organize, and evaluate artifacts, information, and ideas. Then, polish, publish and share.

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Watch the world around you. Reflect on your experiences. What are your needs and interests? What do you want to tell the world or remember in the future? What do you wonder about?

What are the essential question(s) that will be addressed on this e-scrapbook page?

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Project Focus

"The urge to make and build seems to be an almost universal human characteristic. It goes way beyond meeting our need for survival and seems to be the expression of some deep-rooted part of being human." - Mister Rogers

Some projects focus on a concrete topic while others are more abstract. Consider ways to make your product reflect your thinking process. How did the "scraps" come together into the final form? What connections did you make among the elements?

There are many approaches to projects:

  • Concrete or Abstract
  • One thing in-depth
    • Senses (i.e., focus on a color, smell, view)
    • Ordinary or extraordinary
  • Range of an idea
  • Evolution of an idea

Consider using the Speaker Notes in Powerpoint, Comments in Word, or Notes in Inspiration to annotate your visuals and journal your ideas. Also consider writing an introduction to your scrapbook that expresses what you learned from the experience.

Action Focus
Work, school, and play are just a few of the activities that are part of our world. Do you participate in sports, theatre, or hobbies? Have you been geocaching?

  • Writing Ideas: What do you do for work and leisure? How have these changed over time? What is life like at home, in the office, in town, on the farm, at church, in the park, at a historical site, at a carnival, in the yard, at the zoo, or other trips?
  • Visualizing ideas:
  • Examples:
  • Lessons: When Work is Done from Library of Congress

Artifact Focus
Focus on a particular artifact. Consider objects in your life such as musical instruments, sports equipment, heirlooms, furniture, tools, machines, clothing, computer, and hobbies. Create a list of objects in your life. Create a list of objects in the lives of others through history. How are objects related to each other? Consider objects in nature such as trees, gardens, grass, flowers, river, or rock formations.

  • Writing Ideas: What is the object? How is it defined? What's special about this particular object? How is this object meaningful to you? How was this object acquired? What is it's value to yourself and others? What fictional or true story can be told about this object? What different stories would others tell?
  • Visualizing ideas: What does the object look like in isolation? What about in the context of a special event, family celebration, or historical event? How have views of the object changed over time? How has it been viewed in different context? What objects are related to this objects? For example, sheet music, piano stools, a church, a music teacher, and your mother could all be related to your piano. You can find visuals or new objects ar Froogle and old objects at Ebay. Are these smells or sounds related to this object? What are specific ares of the object that can be emphasized (i.e., tree, branch, leaves, seeds, buds, woods)? Consider specific aspects of the item such as the nutrition content label of food or the washing directions on a clothing label.
  • Examples: Farmall tractors, piano, trumpet, hot wheels, softball glove, Clue game, Maple tree

Art and Architecture Focus
Focus on art or architecture.

  • Writing Ideas: What art draws your interest? What do you dislike? Why? What public art is in your area? What art is in your town square, city, park, or area (i.e., fountains, statues, sculpture, memorials, clock, architecture, landscaping)?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What visuals represent this art?
  • Examples: van Gogh, Impressionists, rock art, American Indian art

Autobiographical Focus
Focus on self and family.

  • Writing Ideas: What do you want to share about yourself?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What visuals represent this aspect of your life?
  • Examples: Grade 9, my childhood

Custom Focus
Focus on a custom or tradition particular to your family, culture, or religion. Does the tooth fairy come to your house? Do you eat banana bread at Christmas?

  • Writing Ideas: What is the custom or tradition? Where and why did it start? Does it symbolize on commemorate something? Why is it important to you, your family, and/or your group? What's the history of the idea? How has it been modified by different people or groups?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photos would help others learn about your tradition?
  • Examples: red poppies

Document Focus
Focus on a specific document. Consider a treaty, law, certificate, or deed. How has it impacted you, your country, and the world?

  • Writing Ideas: Why is this document important? Are there different versions of this document? Does this document have particular significance to you? How? Are there passages that could be quoted? What about key words defined?
  • Visualizing Ideas: How can the document be digitized (i.e., website, scanner, digital camera)? How can the document be visualized (i.e., thumbnail, zoom in, transcribe)? Could key words or passages be highlighted or "pop-up"?
  • Examples: Declaration of Independence, birth certificate, American Revolutionary War pension document, Patriot Act, Brown vs Board, Clean Air Act

Event or Experience Focus
Focus on a specific event or experience. It could be something emotional such as a birthday, tragedy, disaster, or graduation. Also consider the impact of a historical, cultural, musical, social, or other event. Consider a specific day in history. Or, a celebration such as a special month or day. What about birthdays, anniversaries, local centennials, multi-generational activities, reunions, retirements, weddings, funerals, or championships? Have you met someone famous, had a unique experience, or interesting happening growing up?

You might separate events and experiences. An event may be something that involved you as an observer such as a historic space flight or landmark court decision. An experience may be something that involved you directly such as conducting a science experiment or playing in a football game. It could be as simple as an anecdote or silly story about yourself.

  • Writing Ideas: What was the event? Who was impacted? What did it mean? Where were you and what were you doing when you heard the reports? What are the key words that reflect your feelings? What were the reactions and actions of the people around you? What did you think and do? What is the lasting impact? What news articles, books, websites, editorial, or primary documents (i.e., journals, legal documents, fliers) reflect the event?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photos best reflect the event (i.e., objects, action, people, impact)? What visuals reflect your feelings (i.e., faces, encounters, landscapes)? What artifacts (i.e., tickets, clothing, objects, buildings) could be recorded through photos, scanning, or drawings?
  • Examples: 911, Smithsonian Museum, winter solstice, melted pumpkin pie, virtual field trips (i.e., animals cams), Immigrants at Ellis or Angel Island

Issue Focus
Focus on an issue. Contemplate the options and your perspectives. Consider why others might feel differently from you. Think about how people's thoughts have evolved over time. Canvas the ideas of others.

  • Writing Ideas: What are your passions, frustrations, or concerns? Write or find a poem related to your issue. How does it reflect the topic?
  • Visualizing Ideas: Who can you visualize these ideas?
  • Examples: Brown vs Board of Education (i.e., judgment, photos, timeline),
  • Child Labor in America from Library of Congress

Life Focus
Focus on plants, animals, and organisms. Think about pets, endangered animals, viruses, and issues in life.

Literature Focus
Focus on literature including picture books, novels, short stories, and poems. Think about genres: historical fiction, realistic fiction, biography. Consider a book theme such as birth, death, growing old, passage of time, war, peace, or other topics. Also think about the elements including character, plot, seeting.

  • Writing Ideas: What area of the bookstore draws your interest? What genre of literature is your favorite? What is your favorite book? Why? After learning about an author through the web or a book signing, how does this change your feelings about the book or its characters? How is your life connected to a fairy tale or folklore? What poem addresses an idea, setting, or character in the book? What quote by a famous person expresses the issues and themes of the book? What does the character look like and act like?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What magazine or book cover best reflects your feeling about your magazine/book (i.e., particular artwork, new or tattered)? What photograph or drawing reflects the setting of the book (i.e., Tuck Everlasting)? Why? What other visuals would you include in the book if you were the illustrator? What visual would you put on the cover of your life story? What work of art (i.e., painting, sculpture) reflects the book? Would the artist agree? Why or why not?
  • Examples:
    • Author Paula Danziger uses scrapbooking to develop characters
  • Standards:
    • Students create a scrapbook from the character's point of view. Winnie Foster from Tuck Everlasting tells about her magical week with the Tuck family. Students include diary entries, advice column, sample of magic water, and picture of tree (Instructor, 1990).
    • Students create a page to describe what a character looks and acts like.
      LA 3.3.3 Determine what characters are like by what they say or do and by how the author or illustrator portrays them.

Myth and Misconceptions Focus
Focus on a myth, legend, or misconceptions. Is there an urban legend you think is spooky? Is there a myth you want to bust? Explore one of these ideas that often circulate around the Internet. Also consider local legends, folklore, and stories you may be able to prove.

  • Writing Ideas: What is the myth, legend, misinformation, or story? Can you find contradictory information about this idea?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photos would help others learn about your story?
  • Examples: Marfa Lights, 42explore: Mythology

News and Information Focus
Focus on news.

  • Writing Ideas: What newspaper, magazine, or journal do you respect? What article reflects this perspective? Why?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What magazine or book cover best reflects your feeling about your magazine/book (i.e., particular artwork, new or tattered)?
  • Lessons: Photojournalism: A Record of War from the Library of Congress

Person or People Focus
Focus on a particular person or group of people. Select well-known people who represent an idea or movement. Also consider less-known people who are also significant. Connect these people to yourself. Also think about family members, people you've met, or people you admire. Groups might include Danish, veterans, or hikers. Consider both biographical and autobiographical projects.

Consider interviewing someone. Base your project on a career of interest.

  • Writing Ideas: Who inspires you? Who has made a difference in the person you have become? How does this person reflect a group of people? Why is this person famous or infamous? What barriers did this person break? What makes this person unique? What characteristics do you share with this person? Do you consider this person a hero? Why or why not? Is this person a leader? Why or why not? What would you put in a nomination letter for a special award?
    • Character. Create a scrapbook page for a character in a book.
    • Local political candidate. Choose a candidate and chronicle their campaign.
    • Professional. Choose a profession. Conduct an e-interview, seek want ads, put yourself into the field through photos. What would be interesting, boring, cool, or dangerous about the job?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photographs reflect this person? What are different views of this person? Are there photos from different times in their life? How do the photos reflect this person's personality? What photo of this person is surprising? What books, speeches, objects, songs, or places are associated with this person? What's the timeline of this person?
  • Lessons: Photo Diary: A Separate Peace
  • Examples: Rosa Parks, Rachel Carson, Terry Tempest Williams, American Indians
  • Standards:
    • LA 3.5.2 Write descriptive pieces about people, places, things, or experiences that develop a unified main idea and use details to support the main idea.
      Students pick a famous person and use them as the focus of a scrapbook page. Students will then journal describing the person.
  • Synthesis: How does this person reflect a group or generation of people? How are these people connected in time, philosophy, discipline, or leadership characteristics?

Place Focus
Focus on a particular setting, location, or geographic feature. Explore ideas for place-based learning in the local community through local historical and natural areas.

Quote Focus
Focus on a quote, statistic, or piece of information.

  • Writing Ideas: Start with a quote. How does it connect to your life? What about others? Do you agree or disagree with the quote?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What visuals represent this quote? Create a collage of people who might agree with the quote or relate to the quote.
  • Examples:
    "I base most of my fashion sense on what doesn't itch" - Gilda Radner
    "I have a dream..." - Martin Luther King, Jr.
    “Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. Nature’s peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you, and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves.” - John Muir, Our National Parks, 1901
    "There is something of yourself that you leave at every meeting with another person." - Mister Rogers from The World According to Mister Rogers.
  • Websites:
    Quote Garden

Song Focus
Focus on a song.

  • Writing Ideas: Start with the lyrics. What do they mean to you and your world? How do they connect to a particular place and time?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What visuals represent this song? What images do you see in your mind?
  • Examples: John Denver songs, Gladstone folk songs

Symbols, Signs, and Marker Focus
Focus on symbols, signs, or markers. Consider street signs, historic markers, political posters, commercial signs, or cornerstones. Explore cemetery tombstones or commemorative markers. Are there war memorials in your town? What do they mean to the local residents? Also, think about crests, totems, and other family symbols. For example, lobster companies have their own buoys. Consider nature too. Did you know that each thumbprint is different? Did you know that the fluke (tail) of each whale is unique?

  • Writing Ideas: Is there particular meaning for your family, culture, or religion? Why is it important to you, your family, and/or your group? What's the history of the idea? How has it been modified by different people or groups? How do the signs in your town reflect the personality of the town? Who is buried in your local cemetery? What stories can be told by exploring the cemetery?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photos would help others learn about this idea? Start with a photo of a street sign. Use this as the title of a story, poem, or project.
  • Examples: historic markers, tombstones, FDR memorial, lobster buoys (lobsters), family crests, whale fluke identification (whales)

Theory Focus
Focus on a theory, formula, or concept.

  • Writing Ideas: Why are ideas accepted or rejected? What does it take to convince people of a theory? How can a formula or model be so important? Who are the people involved? What's the history of the idea?
  • Visualizing Ideas: How can you visualize these ideas (i.e., formula, people, products, alternatives)?
  • Lesson: DNA - Unity & Diversity
  • Examples: evolution, pi, golden triangle, e=mc2

Value Focus
Focus on a value, character trait, or ethical issue. Consider a word such as respect, gratitude, prejudice, or honesty.

  • Writing Ideas: What do you value? What's important to you?
  • Visualizing Ideas: How can you visualize these ideas?
  • Examples: bullying,

Word Focus
Focus on a specific word or concept. Consider an abstract word such as aspirations, frustrations, fears, bored, or thrills. Also, think about words connected with subject areas such as democracy, drought, poverty, beauty, freedom, irony, or red herring. Consider character words such as respect and honesty. What are your hopes, dreams, obsessions, and fears? When have you felt foolish or frightened?

  • Writing Ideas: What is the definition of this word? What are related words? Use Visual Thesaurus for ideas. What are examples and nonexamples? What personal experience do you have with this word? Can this word be viewed from different perspectives? How? What are common misconceptions or misinformation about this concept? Are people's idea about the word likely to evolve or change? Why? How? Can you speculate on the definition of this word in the future? What is the root and history of the word? How can you create or impact this word?
  • Visualizing ideas: What image best reflects this word? How can these visuals be organized to tell a story or define the word? What colors best reflect the word?
  • Examples: peace, erosion
  • Lesson: Vocabulary Scrapbook: A Separate Peace
  • Standards:
    • Focus on basic features of words: word parts, patterns, relationships, and origins.

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Thinking Focus

Consider ways to share your understandings and thinking through the use of an e-scrapbook. When using electronic scrapbooking with students, encourage students to share the process they used to select, evaluate, and synthesize information. Although lists and explanations are fine, consider ways to analyze, synthesize and evaluate information.

How will you transform ideas and information into a form that can be conveyed electronically? What is the audience for the project?

E-scrapbooking allows creators to mull over issues and speculate on outcomes. These are important high level thinking skills. As you design assignments, consider synthesis. How can people learn from each other? Design activities where students come together to compare their experiences, debate issues, and/or come to con census.

Critical thinking is the ability to identify, interpret, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information.

  • Structure an argument
  • Judge the credibility
  • Make a decision

There are many ways to express your thinking through e-scrapbooking. Explore the following areas of focus and thinking.

Analogy Focus
Focus on an analogy. How is something like something else?

  • Writing Ideas: Start with an analogy. What are the key ideas of the analogy? How can the analogy be used in different ways (i.e., recipe for life, recipe for disaster, recipe for life)?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What visuals represent this analogy? Could a map or other visual tools be used as part of the analogy?
  • Examples:
    "A library media center is like a tide pool."
    "Civilization is a stream with banks. The stream is sometimes filled with blood from people killing, stealing, shouting, and doing things historians usually record - while, on the banks, unnoticed, people build homes, make love, raise children, sing songs, write poetry, whittle statues. The story of civilization is the story of what happens on the bank." - Will Durant from The Story of Civilization

Before and After (Then and Now) Focus
Focus on before and after. How can a single event change your life or the life of others? How do things evolve over time?

  • Writing Ideas: Start with an event, person, location, or other action. What was the world like before and after this happening? For example, before and after a volcano, hurricane or other disaster. What about before and after a war, medical breakthrough, or scientific discovery? What about before and after 911? What does a place look like before and after you plant a garden or build a house? What about before and after a volcano or flood? How does the environment change? Use Jan Thornhill's book Before & After: A Book of Nature Timescapes for ideas!
  • Visualizing Ideas: What visuals represent before and after? What about the process that moved from before to after? For example, the process of a science experiment.
  • Lessons:
  • Examples: park clean-up

Cause and Effect Focus
Focus on cause and effect.

  • Writing Ideas:
  • Visualizing Ideas:
  • Examples: War, why leaves change colors, why medicine works
  • Lessons: What Do You See? (Grade 11) from Library of Congress - Civil War and Industrial Revolution

Change Focus
Focus on a specific change. How do trees change from season to season? How have animals adapted to their environment? How do creatures change during their lives? How has a town changed over it's history? How has the health of a river changed over time? How has currency and coins changed in your lifetime? What about payment for goods and services (i.e., paypal, credit cards, debit cards, bar codes, money, checks, bartering)? What about stamps and letter writing? What about communications (i.e., cell phones, phone numbers, telephones, telegraphs)? Use Lynne Cherry's book A River Ran Wild for ideas.

  • Writing Ideas: How are you connected with a historical figure, location, or event? How are you connected with particular ideas, concept or approach? How do you fit into the history of this idea? How is your local community connected to an historical event?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photos help you visually trace is idea or event?
  • Examples: pollution in a river over time
  • Synthesis: Compare different types of change. How is the season of a tree like the season of life? How is the life cycle of a bee like an ant? Compare currency across cultures.

Connection Focus
Focus on a particular connection between ideas or events. Trace the historical connection of these ideas. What's the history of the park you are visiting? How are you connected to the founders of your town or nation? Connect something in your life to a piece of music or artwork.

  • Writing Ideas: How are you connected with a historical figure, location, or event? How are you connected with particular ideas, concept or approach? How do you fit into the history of this idea? How is your local community connected to an historical event?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photos help you visually trace is idea or event?
  • Examples: Salem founder distant relative, ice cream family tradition, underground railroad, vanGogh and fields
  • Approaches: Venn diagram, Chain of ideas (i.e., inventions, food chain), Los Alamos Fire, Milestones Project

Comparison Focus
Focus on a comparison. Consider comparing time periods, people, resources, or other things or ideas. Compare two articles from different points of view, two time periods, different versions of a document (Declaration of Independence), or different accounts of the same event.

Criticism Focus
Focus on criticism. Criticism involves a view or opinion on a particular work. Conduct a serious examination of a movie, book, play, essay, novel, scientific theory, short story, historical account, piece of art, music, or other work. Evaluate a work of art or literature. Make a judgment.

  • Writing Ideas: What meaning do you find in this work? What do you like and dislike? Why? Provide examples and evidence to support your opinion. What is your judgment?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What excerpts illustrate your ideas? Could you incorporate book or magazine covers, playbills, movie screen shots, author photographs?
  • Examples: literary criticism

Debate Focus
Focus on a debate. Explore two sides of a topic and create a e-scrapbook debate.

  • Writing Ideas: What is the central question or statement? What are the different sides of the issue? What are the key differences? Why?
  • Visualizing Ideas: Can you identify an icon to depict each side and the key issues?
  • Examples: Tobacco, Lumbering, Abortion, Patriot Act

In-depth Focus
Focus on the details and a close-up view on a topic. Zoom in on the essential elements of an idea.

  • Writing Ideas: What did you find? What did you discovery that you didn't know before? What surprised you?
  • Visualizing Ideas:
  • Examples: crab (boy with crab)

Inquiry Focus
Focus on inquiry. Search for knowledge, answer questions, and investigate interests

  • Writing Ideas: What are your questions about a topic? How can they be answered? How will you collect and analyze information?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What tools did you use for thinking such as concept maps, lists, or diagrams?
  • Examples: Blogs to record an experience, science experiments, science fair central

Mystery Focus
Focus on a mystery. A mystery is something that is difficult to explain or understand. Begin with a topic of interest. Create, document, and/or solve a problem, crime, incident, or puzzle surrounding a topic using deductive reasoning. Trace your inferences.

Perspectives Focus
Focus on an issue, argument, evidence, conclusions.

Perspectives Focus
Focus on a particular perspective or point for view. Or, explore many different perspectives. Consider taking a different perspective than your own.

  • Writing Ideas: What are all the perspectives that are represented? What are the key issues or points? What are the characteristics of people that hold a particular view?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photographs reflect each perspective? What documents support a particular view? Start with a photo. Write from the point-of-view of a person in the photo. Click on a photo to see of hear their perspective.
  • Examples: Pro-War vs Anti-War; Republication vs Democrats; Rainforest Environment vs Industry; What happened to the Loyalists who went to Canada after the Revolutionary War?
  • Synthesis: Hold a debate. Make a decision.

Prediction Focus
Focus on prediction. Prediction is a statement about the future based on evidence. It may involve anticipation, foretelling, and forecasting. When will a major earthquake hit the US midwest? When will Mount Hood erupt? When will the Amazon rainforests be gone and what will the impact be? When will diabetes be cured? Will the groundhog see its shadow? When will the garden bloom or the leaves change? What celebrities will get married and divorced? What will you be doing in 10, 20, or 50 years? What are your hopes and expectations? What would have happened if a different direction had been taken?

  • Writing Ideas: What does the future hold? How do you know? What evidence supports your prediction? What's the past, present, and future of your idea? What do other people think about your prediction?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What photographs reflect the past, present, and future? What are the key statistics used in making a prediction? What charts and graphs could be extended based on your evidence? What data could you collect to make your own graph? What objects, settings, or people are associated with the idea?
  • Examples: Global warming; invasive species; Internet; diabetes
  • Synthesis: Compare predictions. Refine predictions.

Process Focus
Focus on a process such as information or scientific inquiry, taking a trip, or finding a job. Also, consider topics that involve sequencing or timelines.

  • Writing Ideas: What are the steps in the process? Are they stages or phases? Is the process recursive? How did your thinking change during the process? What were the major barriers or frustrations? What did you find exciting about the experience?
  • Visualizing Ideas: What preparation or materials are involved? What visuals represent each stage of the process?
  • Examples: Blogs to record an experience, from farm to table, life cycles

Product Focus
Focus on a product. Consider how technology can be used to transform this into an e-scrapbook projects. For example, you might create electronic squares like quilt squares to represent. Consider key historical events, people, scientific discoveries, disasters, and medical breakthroughs.

  • Writing Ideas: What traditional products could be adapted for use in an e-scrapbooking project? For example, could you create a bumper sticker and use it as the center of your e-scrapbook page?
  • Visualizing Ideas: Use traditional products to inspire your e-scrapbooking project.
  • Examples: movie poster, trading cards, brochure

Reflection Focus
Focus on reflection. Consider how these new ideas fit into you experiences.

  • Writing Ideas: What did I learn? How does it fit? What does it mean?
  • Visualizing Ideas:
  • Examples:

Storytelling Focus
Focus on storytelling.

  • Writing Ideas: Who is telling the story, why? What happened? Who are the people involved? Is the story true?
  • Visualizing Ideas:
  • Examples: Quahog Family

Trace or Track Focus
Focus on tracing or tracking an idea, experience, or project.

  • Writing Ideas: Track the weather in your area for a period of time. Calculate averages and make predictions.
  • Visualizing Ideas:
  • Examples: Herman and the Snake Babies
  • Website:

Wonder Focus
Focus on wondering. Ask questions, consider connections, and explore options.


  • Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking by Browne & Keeley
  • Critical Thinking: An Introduction by Fisher

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Content Focus

e-scrapbooking activities are effective across the curriculum. Seek ways that e-scrapbooking can be incorporated into 21st century learning and the "new literacies" including historical, cultural, mathematical, political, musical, artistic, and environmental literacy.

English and Language Arts
As you explore e-scrapbooking possibilities for English and Language Arts consider the following topics.

  • Argumentative (i.e., logical defense)
  • Autobiographies and Biographies (i.e., authors, famous characters)
  • Capitalization. Capitalize correctly geographical names, holidays, historical periods, and special events. (IN Standard LA 3.6.7)
  • Descriptive Writing (i.e., sensory). Use words to create a picture in the mind of your readers by incorporating the use of senses (i.e., see, hear, touch, taste, smell) and emotions (i.e., fear, sadness, happiness). Start with a photo and write how you feel. Write about the setting, people, and action. Start with a photo. Write imaginary, alternative endings for the the situation.
  • Dialogue Writing. Select a photo containing people. Write dialogue for the people in the photo.
  • Directions and Sequencing Writing
  • Expository Writing (i.e., informational). Use words to teach the reader something new. Write about how to ride a bike, make a sandwich, or use a lever. Teach others about a family tradition or science concept. Use photos to illustrate your tutorial.
  • Expository Writing (i.e., informational). Use words to teach the reader something new. Write about how to ride a bike, make a sandwich, or use a lever. Teach others about a family tradition or science concept. Use photos to illustrate your tutorial.
  • Expressive Writing
  • Genres of Literature (i.e., Tall tales, folktales, folklore, fact/fiction, movie Big Fish)
  • Grammar
  • Informative Writing
  • Inquiry/Process
  • Literary Criticism
  • Narrative (i.e., stories, creative writing, virtual field trip). Use words to tell a story. Explain what happens step by step. Start with a photo and write about the action. Take the reader through what happened during the event shown in the photo. Create your own graphic novel using photos and your own narrative.
  • Oral Presentations. Share scrapbooks including a beginning, middle, and end. (IN Standard LA 3.7.6, 3.7.8)
  • Persuasive Writing (i.e., emotional appeals). Use words to express an opinion and provide evidence and reasons that support your perspective. Write about your favorite book, author, subject, or other topic. Use photos to illustrate your ideas.
  • Punctuation. Use commas in dates, locations, address, and series. (IN Standard LA 3.6.6)
  • Sentences. Create titles that are interrogative or exclamatory.
    Standard LA 3.6.2 Write correctly complete sentences of statement, command, question, or exclamation, with final punctuation (i.e., Declarative: This tastes very good.; Imperative: Please take your seats.; Interrogative: Are we there yet?; Exclamatory: It’s a home run!).
  • Spelling
  • Synonyms (same meaning), Antonyms (opposite meaning), Homophones (sounds same, different meanings), and Homographs (spelled same, different meanings). Provide lots of visuals and ask students to create a scrapbook using synonyms and antonyms "at the zoo," "at my house," "in my school". (IN Standard LA 3.1.4)
  • Technical Writing
  • Vocabulary Words. Write and illustrate an abstract concept, key science term, or other word.

As you design projects and lessons, consider the following key ideas:

  • Audience - consider the intended reader of the e-scrapbook
  • Standards:
    • Focus on basic features of words: word parts, patterns, relationships, and origins.
    • Focus on asking questions; making predictions; and identifying and analyzing structure, organization, perspective, and purpose.
    • Focus on identifying story elements such as character, theme, plot, and setting, and making connections and comparisons across texts.
    • Focus on mechanics of writing such as spelling, grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and sentence structure.
    • Focus on speaking skills.
  • Lessons:

Some online tools can provide interesting resources for e-scrapbooks. Incorporate the following ideas and resources into your project:

Fine Arts
As you explore e-scrapbooking possibilities for Fine Arts consider the following topics.

  • Compare an artist's work over a lifetime
  • Apply the color wheel in creating scrapbook pages.

As you explore e-scrapbooking possibilities for Math consider the following topics.

  • Everyday math
  • Formulas
  • People (i.e., Newton, Pythagoras)
  • Theories
  • Measurement. Use specific shapes and sizes on scrapbook pages. Write about how each shape was used on the page.
    Establish borders a specific size. (IN Standard Math 3.5.1) Measure line segments to the nearest half-inch.
    Select and use shapes on page. Take photographs that reflect shapes in nature and life. (IN Standard Math 4.4.3) Identify, describe, and draw parallelograms*, rhombuses*, and trapezoids*, using appropriate mathematical tools and technology.
    Create e-mats for photos. (IN Standard Math 5.4.1) Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles, triangles, and circles by using appropriate tools (e.g., ruler, compass, protractor, appropriate technology, media tools).
    Create balanced shapes on the page by making two identical polygons. (IN Standard Math 5.4.3) Identify congruent* triangles and justify your decisions by referring to sides and angles.
    Create similar polygons. (IN Standard Math 6.4.5) Identify and draw two-dimensional shapes that are similar*.
    Example: Draw a rectangle similar to a given rectangle, but twice the size.
    Example: In a collection of triangles, pick out those that are the same shape and size and explain your decisions.
    Example: Draw a rectangle with sides 5 in and 3 in.
    Draw and reflect shapes on the page. (IN Standard Math 6.4.6) Draw the translation (slide) and reflection (flip) of shapes.
    Example: Draw a square and then slide it 3 inches horizontally across your page. Draw the new square in a different color.
  • Data Analysis and Probability
  • Project Idea: When I was young, I used to cut things out of the magazines and catalogs. I can do the same thing today using Froogle and other online tools. I can identify costs, create graphs, interpret results, and do the math

Some online tools can provide interesting resources for e-scrapbooks. Incorporate the following ideas and resources into your project:


As you explore e-scrapbooking possibilities for science consider the following topics.

  • Create pages focusing on tools and how they affect the way we live. Use photos taken by students. Interview people about how they use these tools. (IN Standard Science 3.1.6) Give examples of how tools, such as automobiles, computers, and electric motors, have affected the way we live.
  • Create pages based on groups of objects or creatures (i.e., insects, reptiles). (IN Standard Science 3.4.1) Demonstrate that a great variety of living things can be sorted into groups in many ways using various features, such as how they look, where they live, and how they act, to decide which things belong to which group.
  • Create pages with photos taken by students. Write about the information they gather. (IN Standard Science 4.1.5) Demonstrate how measuring instruments, such as microscopes, telescopes, and cameras, can be used to gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events. Note that measuring instruments, such as rulers, can also be used for designing and constructing things that will work properly.
  • Create pages focusing on the places scientists work. (IN Standard Science 6.1.5) Identify places where scientists work, including offices, classrooms, laboratories, farms, factories, and natural field settings ranging from space to the ocean floor.
  • Create pages that visually represent the product and journal the comparisons. (IN Standard Science 6.2.9) Compare consumer products, such as generic and brand-name products, and consider reasonable personal trade-offs among them on the basis of features, performance, durability, and costs.
  • Create pages that demonstrate how the movement of the earth impacts weather patterns and seasons. (IN Standard Science 6.3.5) Use models or drawings to explain that Earth has different seasons and weather patterns because it turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of Earth’s yearly orbit around the sun. Know that because of this, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of Earth during the year (the accompanying greater length of days also has an effect) and the difference in heating produces seasons and weather patterns.
  • Topics:
    • Share scientific inquiry experiences
  • Lesson Ideas:
  • Standards:
    • Focus on Physical Science - how all natural objects, events, and processes are connected to each other. Try the following comparisons: river vs stream; lake vs pond; peninsula vs island; march, wetland, bog, or swamp; mesa, spire, or butte
    • Focus on Life Science - how living things function and how they interact with one another and their environment
    • Focus on common themes across science, math, and technology
    • Focus on historical perspectives related to scientific enterprise

Social Studies: General
Geography, history, economics, and other social studies areas all contains interesting data, ideas, and information that would be useful scrapbook projects.

  • Create pages that visually describe where American Indians and European settlers lived. (IN Standard Social Studies 3.1.1) Describe American Indian groups who lived in the region when European settlers arrived.
  • Create pages focusing on the lives of an early founder or settler in America. (IN Standard Social Studies 3.1.2) Explain why and how the local community was established and identify founders and early settlers.
  • Create pages focusing on the sequence of a local event. (IN Standard Social Studies 3.1.5) Develop simple timelines of events in the local communities. Example: Use a school newsletter or local newspaper to make a timeline of current events.
  • Create pages the use maps of North America. (IN Standard Social Studies 3.3.1) Distinguish between physical and political features on maps and globes and label a map of North America identifying countries, oceans, major rivers, the Great Lakes, and mountain ranges. Locate the United States, Indiana, and the local community.
  • Create pages that focus on key features of the state and national map. (IN Standard Social Studies 4.3.4) Locate Indiana on a map of the United States; indicate the state capital, major cities, and rivers in Indiana; and be able to place these on a blank map of the state.
  • Create a page focusing on an entrepreneur. (IN Standard Social Studies 4.4.7) Identify entrepreneurs* who have influenced Indiana and the local community. Example: the Studebaker brothers, Madam C.J. Walker, Eli Lilly, and Marie Webster.
  • Create pages on cultural patterns and compare these among students. Create pages that reflect these comparisons. (IN Standard Social Studies 6.3.10) Compare and contrast cultural patterns — such as language, religion, and ethnicity — in various parts of Europe; the Caribbean; and North, South, and Central America.

Social Studies: History
History is about facts, storytelling and perspective. It involves looking through the eyes of the writer or the person who lived an experience. The key is bringing the time alive. What are the value words associated with historical events? What is the fact and fiction of an event? What is historical fiction and how does it relate to historical fact? What's the role of the historian and author?

  • Topics
    • Civics
    • Communities
    • Cultural events, holidays, traditions
    • Economics
    • Family history and heritage
    • Geography
    • Historical Topics: music, fashion
    • State history
    • National history: Civil War, WWI, WWII
    • World history
  • Geography Lessons
  • History Lessons

Scrapbook Evaluation

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From journaling to interviews, there are many ways to collection information for an e-scrapbooking project. Think of this quest for information as a quest for evidence to support your project.

Start by brainstorming the kinds of information that would be helpful in answering questions or addressing your topic of interest. Go systematically through the entire list and ask yourself what might be interesting or useful to include in a project. For example, if you're focusing on a theme such as peace you might find a poem, piece of art, quote, and photos to express your feelings on the topic.

Use the following resources to help you locate primary resources:

Use the following resources to help you analyze these primary resources:

Artifacts and Realia
There are many different kinds of artifacts that can be incorporated into scrapbooks. Some things such as tickets stubs or currency may be placed directed into a scrapbook or digitized using a scanner. Larger items may be photographed.

Artifacts include:

  • Clothing
  • Furnishings
  • Paper artifacts
    • event programs (i.e., music, theatre, sports, graduation)
    • receipts (i.e., sales, work orders)
    • recipes
    • tickets, ticket stubs (i.e., admissions)
    • stamps and envelopes
  • Website Resources: Ebay (paper dolls), Froogle,

Audio and Video
Multimedia is a wonderful tool.

For help with analysis and evaluation, go to

Audio includes:

  • Music
  • Oral Histories
  • Speeches

Video includes:

  • Demonstrations
  • Performances
  • Skits
  • Speeches

Websites: Spanish American War in Movies from the Library of Congress

Data Collection, Polls and Surveys
Many kinds of original data can be collected. For example, wind meters, PDA probes, and GPS devices can be used to record information for experiments.

Incorporate polls, surveys, and other data collection tools and results. These may take the form of raw data, charts, and graphs. The information may be collected by yourself or others. The information may be the center of a debate, reflection, or thoughts.

Interviews and Oral History
Conversations are a great way to gather information for your project. These discussions can take face-to-face, through e-mail or threaded discussions, or even on the telephone. When possible record the interviews with video or audio equipment. Also, consider "living witnesses" focusing on particular events experienced by people. Consider focus groups to discuss different perspectives or choices.

Use the following resources to get started:

Whether you keep a daily diary or an ongoing blog, there are many ways to journal your experiences and ideas. These can serve as a great resource for e-scrapbooking activities.

The key to journaling is reflective questioning. Think about your own thinking. This is a "metacognitive" activity. Mull over issues, ponder the possibilities, and speculate on the world's big questions. Your e-scrapbook may take excerpts from your journal. Or, it may "become" your journal.

Use the following resources to get started:

You'll find documents and records in many places.

Families often keep documents. You may find them in a safe deposit box, family bible, or in a shoebox somewhere.

Many organizations keep records. These documents are interesting to explore. Groups include agencies, associations, churches, chambers of commerce, clubs, fraternal organizations, historic societies, and libraries.

Government agencies also keep records. These include:

  • census data
  • certificates and court records (i.e., birth, death, marriage, divorce, court decisions)
  • deeds (i.e., land records)
  • inventories (i.e., Kinnick Estate)
  • key documents - Declaration of Independence (alternative versions)
  • laws, legislation, treaties
  • military records (i.e., Kinnick Muster Roll)
  • permits (i.e., building, parade)
  • tax records
  • transcriptions

Much of this information is being digitized and placed on the web.

Visual Materials
From photographs to maps, visuals are an essential element of an e-scrapbook. These images can be digitized in many ways including the use of a digital camera or scanner.

For sources of visuals, go to

For help with analysis and evaluation, go to

Explore some of the following types of original visuals that could be digitized for use in an e-scrapbook:

There are many ways to make your digital photographs more interesting. Try some of the following techniques:

  • Shoot photos from different angles
    • action
    • bird's eye view
    • close-up
    • over-the-shoulder
  • Use graphics software to
    • turn a color photo, black & white
    • crop the photo to focus on a particular area

Written Materials
From letters to magazine articles, there are many kinds of written materials that can be incorporated into projects. They may be in primary source documents, handwritten materials, typed records, or digital form.

For help with analysis and evaluation, go to

Explore some of the following types of original written materials that could be digitized for use in an e-scrapbook:

  • books (i.e., textbooks, fiction, nonfiction, cookbooks)
  • booklets, brochures, fliers
  • correspondence (i.e., email, charts, letters, postcards, holiday cards, announcements)
  • diaries, logs (i.e., exercise, health, science, travel, weather), journals
  • guidebooks
  • newspapers (i.e., advertisements, articles, cartoons, editorials, obituaries, advice column)
  • poems (i.e., dMarie scrapbooking poems)
  • plays and skits
  • press releases
  • science lab reports
  • websites

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“Ideas are the cheapest part of writing. They are free. The hard part is what you do with the ideas you have gathered.” -Jane Yolen

Organizing individual pages or entire e-scrapbooks using alphabetical order is an interesting approach. For example, you might create a tribute to a person using key words or a trip to the zoo using words like Anteater, Bear, and Cougar. Use Jan Thornhill's books The Wildlife ABC: A Nature Alphabet and The Wildlife 123: A Nature Counting Book for ideas.

Explore other approaches to using words and alphabetical order:

Many projects are organized chronologically. They may record events in the order of their occurrence, trace an idea over time, or sequence steps in a process. Timelines are often used to visualize chronological projects. Explore the following examples:

  • Lifetime: Biography or Autobiography
  • Family: Heritage books, Family Tree
  • Significant Event: 911, Louis and Clark Journey
  • Yearbook: Chronicle a Year, Senior Yearbook, Class Scrapbook

Organize based on a hierarchy. You might use a top-down approach starting with a broad topic and getting more and more specific. For example, the Animal Kingdom can be thought of as a hierarchy with more and more specific identification.

Information Map
A master visual can be used to represent information, concepts, and ideas. This is often used when doing comparisons or demonstrating an analysis. Consider a cluster map, Venn Diagram, or flowchart. Use A Taxonomy of Information Patterns by Bernie Dodge for ideas.

  • Mindmap. Place text (word, definition, idea, poem quote) or photo (i.e., setting, person, object) on a page. Draw lines out from the key text/word reflecting your perspective, ideas, concerns, reflections.

Geographical or Regional
Organize based on a geographic feature, area, or comparison. Use a map, aerial photo, or other visual to represent the area. It might be a country, state, or local map. Consider a specialize make such as a topo map, national park map, or hand-drawn creation.

Also consider regions or areas of a visual such as photograph of a heart or brain. It might also be areas such as different habitats (i.e., wetlands, prairie, desert, woodlands).

  • Examples: national parks visits, places I've lived, places I want to visit, places with wetlands

Many people use a thematic focus for their e-scrapbooks exploring a particular topic and organizing ideas based on the demands of the topic.

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Technology Tools

There's no "best" way to create an e-scrapbook. You don't even need to buy new tools. If you have a word processor and a graphics package you can build great products.

Your selection of e-scrapbook tools depends on your needs and interests.

If you want to share your projects online, consider how your final project will be posted on the Internet. You can create web pages, but you could also create a blog or turn a word processing document into a PDF file.

If you plan to print your e-scrapbook, consider the quality of the images and fonts. Also, think about the paper and printer you'll be using.

If you plan an interactive e-scrapbook with pop-up windows or comments, think about how this product will be stored and shared.

There are many issues in page or screen layout:

  • size: 8.5x11 or 12x12
  • single page vs two sides: story & explanation/background
  • template vs freeflow
  • screen-based vs print-based
  • static vs interactive

There are many ways to use the blog format for projects. For example, rather than building your autobiography in isolation, make it a family project. Share your experience as a family. Each person has something to contribute, coordinate, and share. By posting your ideas, others can add comments and memories. Some people are storytellers and others are coordinators. Share expertise to build a legacy for your family and at the same time, bring your family together. Be productive and work through mental stress.

  • Add your ideas about a photo
  • Add your recollections about field trip
  • Conduct interviews
  • Involve local Chamber of Commerce

Graphics software: bitmap graphics, vector graphics, or both
Read Computer Graphics 101 for definitions.

  • Paint Shop from Jasc - trial available

Page Layout

PDF (Portable Document Format)

Presentation tools

Scrapbook software

Specialty software

  • Inspiration and Kidspiration (i.e., life cycle, collage)
    • Notes
  • Kidpix

Web pages

Word processor

  • Comments

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Technology Ideas and Issues

Carefully examine the hardware and software available. You may have everything you need.

  • What do you want to do? Will your current hardware and software meet your needs?
  • What do you want to do with photos such as adjust brightness and contrast, crop, copy/paste?

A Dozen Ideas

  1. Digital Camera
    Quality of photos, Ease of use, Size of camera, Storage, Data transfer
    Does your camera take the quality of photos you need? Is it easy to use? Does it have adequate storage or are additional storage cards needed? Is it easy to transfer photographs to the computer?
  2. Data Storage
    CD/DVD, Flash drive, Network
    Do you need a way to easily move information from computer to computer? Do your computers all have at least Windows 98 and a USB port that is easily accessible?
  3. Photo Editing Software
    Easy to use, Import options
    Basic photo editing, Advanced imaging  
    Do you have easy-to-use photo editing software? Did any software come with your computer, camera, or scanner? Do you already have software on your computer such as Paint for resizing and simple adjustments? Will PhotoShop Elements work for your needs?  
  4. Scrapbooking Software
    What software is available? Will it work for your needs?
    • Publish to Screen or Paper - resolution issues
    • Specialty Software (scrapbooking or album) - use outside school
    • PowerPoint - good for interactivity
    • Web pages - good for sharing
    • Word Processor - good for printing
  5. Bubbles
    Quotes, Dialog, Debate
  6. Beyond Bullet Points
    Speaker notes, Audio button
  7. Thumbnails
    Timelines, Menus, Body Parts, Debate
    Click Photo to Enlarge
  8. Photo Hooks
    Use photos to motivate and bring meaning     
  9. Combine with Web-based Photos
    Advertisements, Book covers, Famous people, CD covers
  10. Pictures with Words and Symbols
    Haiku and other poetry
    Math formulas
  11. Photography Ideas
    Action Shots, Distance, Perspective, Point of View
  12. Web-based Tools,

File Management
Organizing text, artwork, and original documents is an important part of e-scrapbooking. It's a good idea to create an electronic folder for each project and keep all original files in addition to the file e-scrapbook page.

When designing e-scrapbook projects, it's essential to consider copyright issues. Although you may intend to share your project within a classroom or family, you should still think about a few key ideas.

  • Citations. Regardless of whether or not a project will be shared, it's important to cite the sources you use. It's common sense, modeling ethical conduct, as well as useful in tracking the ideas later.
  • Copyright Concerns. If you plan to share your project on the Web, be sure to check copyright issues. For example, if you've incorporated a poem, photograph, or music you may need to get permission to share these things. If it's simply a quote from a website or a couple lines from a longer poem, you can cite your source. However if you're using photos from a collection or a piece of artwork, be sure to check the legal issues. For example, in some cases you can use photos from the Library of Congress. However this is not true in all case. If you don't want to deal with these potential issue, take your own photographs, write our own poems, and purchase clipart for use in your projects.

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Technology Techniques

From cropping photos to applying fancy fonts, there are many techniques that will make your e-scrapbooks fun and effective.

Audio and Video
Both audio and video can be incorporated into an e-scrapbook environment. Most software such as Microsoft Word/PowerPoint, Inspiration, and others can link to sounds and movie clips. They can also play music.

  • Create a template. Add audio instructions. For example, create comparisons at the zoo using antonyms.

Regardless of whether your images were created on a scanner or digital camera, the use of graphics software can enhance your final product.

  • Brightness and Contrast. Many times a small adjustment in a visual can make it more effective. For example, photos are sometimes too dark. A simple adjustment to brightness and contrast may be helpful. Most graphics packages have an "automatic" adjustment that is effective.
  • Colors. Use of color is important for the overall appeal and usability of an e-scrapbook. For example if you use dark colored lettering on a dark solid or patterened background, it will be difficult to read. Sometimes color an impact the mood of the page. Consider using color as part of the theme of the page. For example, you might use blue and red for a political debate. Also, consider when a black and white photo might be used rather than a color photo.
  • Compose. As you place images consider the elements of design. For example, objects should point into the page rather than away from the page.
  • Crop. With graphics tools you can focus in on the aspects of the photo that are most important. The key to cropping is to select the important elements of the visual and eliminate unnecessary pieces. What are you trying to emphasize in this photo? In many cases you can zoom in on the photo and only select a small area.
    Pros: focus attention on a detail; focus on a subject; remove distracting information
    Cons: you might miss a car, piano, memory; you might change an idea; you might miss a clue about time period or story
  • Resize. In many cases, you'll need to resize images for e-scrapbooks. Rather than "scrunching" pictures, use graphics software to proportionally adjust the size of visuals.
  • Resolution. As you plan a project, consider whether it will be placed on the web or printed. This will impact the resolution needs of the visuals. If the images will be shown on a screen such as PowerPoint or web-based projects, then 72dpi is all that is necessary. If you plan to print pictures, check the capability of your printer. You may want to save your pictures as 300, 600, or even 2400dpi for high quality printouts.
  • Rotate. Most software allows you to rotate an image. Consider tilting images at an angle.
  • Shapes. With traditional scrapbooking, many people like to use photos cut into fun shapes. You can do the same with e-scrapbooks. You can crop photos into different shapes. You can also create interesting colored frames in different shapes.

Many software packages allow interesting interactive features such as pop-up boxes and comments.

  • Action Buttons
    • Buttons on maps – how town has changed
    • Buttons on historic site – key information
    • Buttons on artifacts – tickets, documents, science elements
  • Comments and Notes
    • PowerPoint Speakernotes
    • Microsoft Word and Excel Comments
    • About page in website; comments in webpage

Although the content of your writing is critical, it's also essential to make your text readable and interesting visually.

  • Colors. Be sure you provide enough contrast between the foreground text and background color of your page.
  • Fonts. Your computer comes with a few fonts, but you may want to download or purchase additional choices. Consider thematic fonts that depict a particular theme or mood. For example, you can get fancy fonts, kid's fonts, and Old English fonts.
  • Font Sources. There are many online sources for free and inexpensive fonts:

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Online Tools

Carson-Dellosa Clip Art
A few free clip art resources for schools.

Color Schemer
Provides tools to help you match colors and identify the color palette number.

Royalty Free Art Products
Clipart, photographs, and other visuals available for purchase online or on CD/DVD.

Provides wood, stone, marble, cloud, nature, water, fabric, organize, skin/fur, metal, technical, maps, paint, misc, and bump texture.

Website Techniques and Tools
Create your own blog.

forums, minipolls, photo albums.

Do History
Learn to piece together the past from fragments that have survived. Explore an example, then create your own. Includes a great History Toolkit section on researching, handling, organizing, and storing information.

Making Sense of Evidence from History Matters
Inncorporate simple guides for Making Sense of Documents (i.e., oral history, films, maps, sense of numbers, letters and diaries, advertisements American Popular Song, photography). Examine Scholars in Action as they analyze resources (inventory, cartoons, songs, photographs, letter, speeches, stories, and newspapers.

Tools from CHNM
Create your own web scrapbook, poll, or survey.
Create a website for sharing family photos, news, family trees, and ideas.

MyScrapbook from Ohio Memory
Explore Ohio archives and create your own scrapbook.

Information Architecture for the Web
Many links to other tools.

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Electronic Scrapbooking

Computer Scrapbooking
Articles, fonts, layout ideas, and links. Also check out Scrapbook Junction, a place to share pages.
Provides a gallery, tutorials, and contests. Emphasis on shopping.

Digital Scrapbook Place
Explore gallery, forums, digital scrapbooking 101 tutorial.

Digital Scrapbooking - What is it all about anyway? from
Read an article about digital scrapbooking.

Digital Scrapbooking Series
Online tutorials on digital scrapbooking.

HP Scrapbooking

Contains a forum and gallery with lots of example pages. Contains a few tutorials.

Nikon Scrapbooking
Incorporate photos into your scrapbooks.

Pages of the Heart
Includes a chat, forums (digital section), and gallery.
Explore gallery, forums, tutorials, and online newsletter.

Contains galley, forum, and layouts.

Selected Other Galleries
PCrafter Gallery

Tutorials for Scrapbooking

Includes lots of ideas for Photoshop, e-scrapbooking links, and a nice gallery.

PSP Tutorial Links
Links to websites with tutorials.

Scrapbooking by Design
Includes tutorials using Paint Ship Pro, using Flip Album, and other software.

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Traditional Scrapbooking


Effective use of Student Journal Writing by Gary R. Cobine
Learn about different kinds of journals.

Scrap Your Stories
Journaling ideas

Scrapbooking Videos

DIY: Scrapbooking Archive,2019,DIY_14161_22733,00.html
Watch videos and learn scrapbooking techniques.

Scrapbooking Magazines

Creating Keepsakes
In addition to a print magazine, the website contains scrapbook basics, tips and tricks

Memory Makers
Includes basics, articles, and forums.
Includes articles on travel tips for scrapbookers, learn2scrapbook tutorials.

Traditional Websites

42explore: Scrapbooking
Lots of links to scrapbooking websites.

Scrapbooking 101
Good resources related to basic techniques, photos, and layouts.

Scrapbooking from
Lots of great ideas if you can sort through the advertising. Contains some great ideas for Scrapbook Story Starters.

Scrapbook Storytelling
Go to the Idea Gallery.

Two Peas in a Bucket - Scrapbooking
Includes a gallery, creating garden, and photograph section.

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Educational Scrapbooking

Animal Habitats - Scrapbooking in the Classroom by Michael Gravois (Instructor, March 1, 2003)
Article focuses on creating scrapbook posters on the topic of animals.

The Art of Scrapbooking by Katie Grotjohn
Describes how scrapbooking can be used in art from grades 3-5.

Educational Scrapbooks
Ideas for using scrapbooking in learning.

Readin', Writin' & Scrappin
Resources, articles, and ideas for learning through scrapbooking.

Scrapbooking in the Classroom

Scrapbook Learning by Michael Gravois (Instructor. January 1, 2003)

What is a Multimedia Scrapbook?

Winnie the Pooh Sing a Song with Tigger (Video)
There's a song and storyline about creating a scrapbook of memories.

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Created 11/04. Updated 5/05.
For information, contact Annette Lamb.

All rights reserved.

Thanks to Jennifer Graham for Standards Connections ideas.